Prevalence of Glaucoma and Its Systemic Risk Factors in a General Japanese Population: The Hisayama Study

Kohta Fujiwara, Miho Yasuda, Jun Hata, Satoko Nakano, Sawako Hashimoto, Emi Ueda, Shun Nakamura, Yusuke Murakami, Takako Nakamuro, Aiko Iwase, Makoto Araie, Akihiko Tawara, Toshiaki Kubota, Takeshi Yoshitomi, Toshiharu Ninomiya, Koh Hei Sonoda

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3 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of glaucoma and its risk factors in a Japanese community. Methods: This study included 3405 Japanese community dwellers who were ≥40 years of age and enrolled in the Hisayama Study. This population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted from 2017 to 2018. A glaucoma screening test was performed using stereo fundus images and swept-source optical coherence tomography. Glaucoma was defined based on the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria. Results: The prevalence of glaucoma was 7.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.7–8.6) overall. The prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) was 5.8% (95% CI, 5.0– 6.6); that of primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) was 0.7% (95% CI, 0.5–1.1); and that of exfoliation glaucoma was 1.1% (95% CI, 0.7–1.4). In addition to aging, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (odds ratio [OR] = 1.15; 95% CI, 1.02–1.33), higher intraocular pressure (OR = 1.06; 95% CI, 1.01–1.12), longer axial length (OR = 1.44; 95% CI, 1.31–1.59), and thinner central corneal thickness (CCT) (OR = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.04–1.15) were significant risk factors for POAG. Diabetes (OR = 2.81; 95% CI, 1.19– 6.62) was a significant risk factor for PACG, and diabetes (OR = 2.15; 95% CI, 1.03–4.47) and thinner CCT (OR = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.02–1.28) were significant risk factors for exfoliation glaucoma. Conclusions: The prevalence of glaucoma was approximately 8%, probably due to the increase in the Japanese aging population. Not only ocular factors but also lower eGFR for POAG and diabetes for PACG and exfoliation glaucoma were risk factors in a general Japanese population. Translational Relevance: Systemic factors such as eGFR and diabetes must also be considered when implementing preventive measures against glaucoma.

Original languageEnglish
Article number11
JournalTranslational Vision Science and Technology
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Ophthalmology


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