Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Asia: A systematic review and analysis

Thaminda Liyanage, Tadashi Toyama, Carinna Hockham, Toshiharu Ninomiya, Vlado Perkovic, Mark Woodward, Masafumi Fukagawa, Kunihiro Matsushita, Kearkiat Praditpornsilpa, Lai Seong Hooi, Kunitoshi Iseki, Ming Yen Lin, Heide A. Stirnadel-Farrant, Vivekanand Jha, Min Jun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)


Introduction The burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is growing rapidly around the world. However, there is limited information on the overall regional prevalence of CKD, as well as the variations in national prevalence within Asia. We aimed to consolidate available data and quantify estimates of the CKD burden in this region. Methods We systematically searched MEDLINE, Embase and Google Scholar for observational studies and contacted national experts to estimate CKD prevalence in countries of Asia (Eastern, Southern and South Eastern Asia). CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 or the presence of proteinuria. For countries without reported data, we estimated CKD prevalence using agglomerative average-linkage hierarchical clustering, based on country-level risk factors and random effects meta-analysis within clusters. Published CKD prevalence data were obtained for 16 countries (of the 26 countries in the region) and estimates were made for 10 countries. Results There was substantial variation in overall and advanced (eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m 2) CKD prevalence (range: 7.0%-34.3% and 0.1%-17.0%, respectively). Up to an estimated 434.3 million (95% CI 350.2 to 519.7) adults have CKD in Asia, including up to 65.6 million (95% CI 42.2 to 94.9) who have advanced CKD. The greatest number of adults living with CKD were in China (up to 159.8 million, 95% CI 146.6 to 174.1) and India (up to 140.2 million, 95% CI 110.7 to 169.7), collectively having 69.1% of the total number of adults with CKD in the region. Conclusion The large number of people with CKD, and the substantial number with advanced CKD, show the need for urgent collaborative action in Asia to prevent and manage CKD and its complications.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere007525
JournalBMJ Global Health
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 25 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Health Policy
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


Dive into the research topics of 'Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Asia: A systematic review and analysis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this