Postoperative tolvaptan use in left ventricular assist device patients: The TOLVAD randomized pilot study

Mark N. Belkin, Teruhiko Imamura, Daniel Rodgers, Anthony J. Kanelidis, Michael P. Henry, Takeo Fujino, Viktoriya Kagan, Karen Meehan, Justin Okray, Shana Creighton, Colleen LaBuhn, Tae Song, Takeyoshi Ota, Valluvan Jeevanandam, Ann B. Nguyen, Ben B. Chung, Bryan A. Smith, Sara Kalantari, Jonathan Grinstein, Nitasha SarswatSean P. Pinney, Gabriel Sayer, Gene Kim, Nir Uriel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Purpose: Tolvaptan, a selective vasopressin type-2 antagonist, has been shown to increase serum sodium (Na) and urine output in hyponatremic left ventricular assist device (LVAD) patients in retrospective studies. In this prospective randomized pilot study, we aimed to assess the efficacy of tolvaptan in this population. Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomized, non-blinded pilot study of LVAD recipients with post-operative hyponatremia (Na < 135 mEq/L) (NCT05408104). Eligible participants were randomized to receive tolvaptan 15 mg daily in addition to usual care versus usual care alone. The primary outcome was a change in Na level and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), from the first post-operative day of hyponatremia (the day of randomization) to discharge. Results: A total of 33 participants were enrolled, and 28 underwent randomization (median age 55 [IQR 50–62]), 21% women, 54% Black, 32% ischemic cardiomyopathy, median baseline Na 135 (IQR 134–138). Fifteen participants were randomized to tolvaptan (TLV) and 13 were randomized to usual care alone (No-TLV). Mean change in Na from randomization to discharge in the TLV group was 2.7 mEq/L (95%CI 0.7–4.7, p = 0.013) and 1.8 (95%CI 0.5–4.0, p = 0.11) in the No-TLV group, though baseline and final Na levels were similar between groups. The mean change in eGFR was 2.6 ml/min/1.73 m2 (95%CI 10.1–15.3, p = 0.59) in TLV versus 7.5 ml/min/1.73 m2 (95%CI 5.2–20.2, p = 0.15) in No-TLV. TLV participants had significantly more urine output than No-TLV patients during their first 24 h after randomization (3294 vs 2155 ml, p = 0.043). Conclusion: TLV significantly increases urine output, with nominal improvement in Na level, in hyponatremic post-operative LVAD patients without adversely impacting renal function.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2382-2390
Number of pages9
JournalArtificial Organs
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Bioengineering
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering


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