Polymorphic Phases of Metal Chlorides in the Confined 2D Space of Bilayer Graphene

Yung Chang Lin, Amane Motoyama, Silvan Kretschmer, Sadegh Ghaderzadeh, Mahdi Ghorbani-Asl, Yuji Araki, Arkady V. Krasheninnikov, Hiroki Ago, Kazu Suenaga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Unprecedented 2D metal chloride structures are grown between sheets of bilayer graphene through intercalation of metal and chlorine atoms. Numerous spatially confined 2D phases of AlCl3 and CuCl2 distinct from their typical bulk forms are found, and the transformations between these new phases under the electron beam are directly observed by in situ scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The density functional theory calculations confirm the metastability of the atomic structures derived from the STEM experiments and provide insights into the electronic properties of the phases, which range from insulators to semimetals. Additionally, the co-intercalation of different metal chlorides is found to create completely new hybrid systems; in-plane quasi-1D AlCl3/CuCl2 heterostructures are obtained. The existence of polymorphic phases hints at the unique possibilities for fabricating new types of 2D materials with diverse electronic properties confined between graphene sheets.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2105898
JournalAdvanced Materials
Issue number52
Publication statusPublished - Dec 29 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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