Confluent monolayers of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) on a poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) antithrombogenic surface play a major role in mimicking the inner surface of native blood vessels. In this study, we extensively investigated the behavior of cell–polymer and cell–cell interactions by measuring adhesion strength using single-cell force spectroscopy. In addition, the attachment and migration of HUVECs on PMEA-analogous substrates were detected, and the migration rate was estimated. Moreover, the bilateral migration of HUVECs between two adjacent surfaces was observed. Furthermore, the outer surface of HUVEC was exam-ined using frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM). Hydration was found to be an indication of a healthy glycocalyx layer. The results were compared with the hydration states of individual PMEA-analogous polymers to understand the adhesion mechanism between the cells and substrates in the interface region. HUVECs could attach and spread on the PMEA surface with stronger adhesion strength than self-adhesion strength, and migration occurred over the surface of analogue polymers. We confirmed that platelets could not adhere to HUVEC monolayers cultured on the PMEA surface. FM-AFM images revealed a hydration layer on the HUVEC surfaces, indicating the presence of components of the glycocalyx layer in the presence of intermediate water. Our findings show that PMEA can mimic original blood vessels through an antithrombogenic HUVEC monolayer and is thus suitable for the construction of artificial small-diameter blood vessels.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Surfaces and Interfaces
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Materials Chemistry