Background:d-Amino acids (d-AAs) have been associated with age-associated conditions in the general population but their relevance in people with HIV (PWH), who experience accentuated/accelerated aging has not been studied. We compared d-AA levels in HIV-infected and uninfected controls and explored their association with markers of immune activation, gut permeability and organ dysfunction.Design:Case-control analysis.Method:Plasma samples from 60 antiretroviral therapy-treated HIV-infected individuals and 59 uninfected controls were analysed. A three-dimensional HPLC system was used to measure d-and l-asparagine, serine, alanine and proline and presented as %d-AA. Additionally, cell-associated and soluble markers of immune activation and senescence were characterized. Kidney and liver functions were expressed as estimated glomerular filtration rate and fibrosis-4 scores, respectively. Mann-Whitney and Spearman rank correlation coefficients were used for statistical analysis.Results:d-Asparagine, d-serine, d-alanine and d-proline were detectable in all plasma samples and correlated with age in HIV-infected and uninfected but not different between groups. Kynurenine/tryptophan ratio was positively correlated with all %d-AAs in PWH and with %d-serine and %d-proline in controls. %d-AAs were not consistently correlated with markers of gut permeability in both groups. All %d-AAs were also correlated with kidney function in both groups whereas age-associated accumulation of %d-asparagine, %d-serine and %d-proline were correlated with liver function and the VACS score in controls.Conclusion:Plasma d-AAs are associated with chronological age and correlated with markers of immune activation and organ decline, though variably, in PWH and controls. Their role in the biology of aging warrants further investigation.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Allergy
- Infectious Diseases