Physiological responses to water-walking in middle aged women

Tomoki Shono, Kazutaka Fujishima, Noboru Hotta, Tetsuro Ogaki, Takeshi Ueda

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18 Citations (Scopus)


The purpose of the present study was to examine the physiological responses to water-walking using the Flowmill, which has a treadmill at the base of a water-flume, in two groups of women. In the first group, the women were known to regularly swim and exercise in water (group A), while in the second, they did not routinely participate in water-exercise (group B). In both groups, twelve healthy female volunteers in their fifties participated in the study. All of the subjects walked in water using the Flowmill for the first time. Subjects completed four consecutive bouts of 4-minute duration at progressively increasing speeds (20, 30, 40, and 50 m min-1), with 1-minute rests between each bout. In addition, water-velocity was adjusted to the walking speed of each bout. The water-depth of the Flowmill was the level of the xiphoid process. The water and room temperatures were 30.3 ± 0.1°C and 24.9 ± 0.4°C, respectively. In both groups, the relationship between walking speed and oxygen uptake (VO2) as well as that between walking speed and heart rate (HR) changed exponentially as the walking speed increased, and the relationship between HR and VO2 was linear. The relationship between HR and VO2 was similar in both groups, and there was no significant difference between the predicted maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) of the two groups. VO2 and HR of group B during water-walking, however, were significantly higher than those of group A at all walking speeds. The results of this study clearly showed that experience in moving through the water strongly affects physiological responses to water-exercise, even when fitness levels are equivalent. J Physiol Anthropol 20 (2): 119-123, 2001 Keywords: water-walking, physiological responses, middle aged women, trained and untrained women for water-exercise.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)119-123
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of physiological anthropology and applied human science
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2001

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Social Sciences


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