Carminator Shaw is a small genus of parasitic wasps that is mainly distributed in Southeast Asia. Eight species are recognized here, including Carminator coronatussp.n. and Carminator gracilissp.n. A data set comprising 54 morphological characters and including all the known species of Carminator, as well as four out-group taxa (two Cryptalyra spp., one Ettchellsia sp. and one Megalyra sp.), was assembled and analysed. Carminator is retrieved as monophyletic. All weighted analyses place Carminator affinis as the sister group to the rest of the genus. A northern clade comprising species occurring on the Japanese Isles, Taiwan and Vietnam (Carminator japonicus (Carminator gracilissp.n. (Carminator cavus + Carminator helios))) is strongly supported and nested inside the more southerly distributed species. C. helios is found on Nakanoshima Island, which emerged post-Pliocene, and so C. helios is considered to have dispersed there via a land-bridge connection from the Ryukyu Islands. A key to all known species of Carminator is provided.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Insect Science