CS mice show unique properties of circadian rhythms: unstable free-running periods and distinct bimodal rhythms (similar to rhythm splitting, but hereafter referred to as bimodal rhythms) under constant darkness. In the present study, we compared clock-related gene expression (mPer1, mBmal1 and Dbp) in the SCN and peripheral tissues (liver, adrenal gland and heart) between CS and C57BL/6J mice. In spite of normal robust oscillation in the SCN of both mice, behavioral rhythms and peripheral rhythms of clock-related genes were significantly different between these mice. However, when daytime restricted feeding was given, no essential differences between the two strains were observed. These results indicate that unusual circadian behaviors and peripheral gene expression in CS mice do not depend on the SCN but rather mechanisms outside of the SCN.
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