Background: Aplastic anemia (AA) is a rare hematologic disease characterized by hypo-cellular bone marrow. The clinical features include fatigue, increased bruising, and gingival bleeding caused by anemia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia. A patient with AA is at high risk for infection because of leukopenia. The risk of systemic infection is especially high in AA patients with severe local infections, including periodontitis. Accordingly, periodontal treatment should include antibiotic prophylaxis to reduce the risk of systemic infection. However, treatment of periodontitis in the AA patient is significantly complicated by the bleeding disorder. We present a case report of the successful periodontal treatment of an AA patient with spontaneous gingival bleeding. Methods: The patient was closely monitored for platelet and neutrophil counts before every treatment. The patient's platelet count was always under 10,000/μl. Therefore, it was necessary to increase platelet counts to over 25,000/μl by transfusion, after which subgingival scaling with anesthesia was performed. When the neutrophil count was less than 2,000/μl, local minocycline chemotherapy was applied to the pockets. Periodontal infection was monitored by detection of bacterial DNA and measurement of serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G titer against periodontal bacteria. Results: Following the physical and chemical treatment, the gingival appearance improved dramatically and the spontaneous gingival bleeding disappeared. Moreover, the IgG titer against periodontal bacteria decreased to normal range and specific periodontal pathogens were no longer detectable in the tested pockets. Conclusion: We believe that the treatment strategy in the present report provides new sight into treatment planning for severely medically compromised patients.
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