Background: Nutritional therapy is used to reduce the adverse events (AEs) of anticancer drugs. Here, we determined whether the amino acids cystine and theanine, which provide substrates for glutathione, attenuated the AEs of S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods: Patients scheduled to receive S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy were randomized to the C/T or the control groups. The C/T group received 700 mg cystine and 280 mg theanine orally 1 week before the administration of S-1, which then continued for 5 weeks. Each group received S-1 for 4 weeks. Blood sampling was performed and AEs were evaluated (CTCAE ver. 4.0) before and after the administration of S-1. S-1 was discontinued when AEs ≥ grade 2 occurred. Results: The incidences of AEs of any grade and those over grade 2 were lower in the C/T group than in the controls. The incidence of diarrhea (G ≥ 2) was significantly less (p < 0.05) in the C/T group (3.1 %) than in the controls (25.8 %). The duration and completion rate of the S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy were significantly longer (p < 0.01) and higher (p < 0.01), respectively, in the C/T group (complete ratio: 75.0 %, duration: 24.8 ± 5.8 days) than in the controls (complete ratio: 35.5 %, duration: 20.0 ± 7.7 days). Conclusions: The oral administration of cystine and theanine attenuated the AEs of S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy and increased the S-1 completion rate, suggesting that cystine and theanine is a useful supportive care for chemotherapy.
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