On the security analysis of an image scrambling encryption of pixel bit and its improved scheme based on self-correlation encryption

Liang Zhao, Avishek Adhikari, Di Xiao, Kouichi Sakurai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Citations (Scopus)


An image scrambling encryption scheme for pixel bits was presented by Ye [Ye GD. Image scrambling encryption algorithm of pixel bit based on chaos map. Pattern Recognit Lett 2010;31:347-54], which can be seen as one kind of typical binary image scrambling encryption considering from the bit-plain of size M×(8N). However, recently, some defects existing in the original image encryption scheme, i.e., Ye's scheme, have been observed by Li and Lo [Li CQ, Lo KT. Optimal quantitative cryptanalysis of permutation-only multimedia ciphers against plaintext attacks. Signal Process 2011;91:949-54]. In the attack proposed by Li and Lo at least 3+⌈log 2(MN)⌉ plain images of size M×N are used to reveal the permutation matrix W=[w(i,k)] (i∈{1, 2,...,M};k∈{1,2,...,8N}) which can be applied to recover the exact plain image. In the current paper, at first, one type of special plain image/cipher image is used to analyze the security weakness of the original image scrambling scheme under study. The final encryption vectors TM and TN or the decryption vectors TM' and TN' are revealed completely according to our attack. To demonstrate the performance of our attack, a quantified comparison is drawn between our attack and the attack proposed by Li and Lo. Compared with Li and Lo's attack, our attack is more efficient in the general conditions. In particular, when the sizes of images satisfy the condition M=N or M≤8N, the number of the used plain images/cipher images is at most 9, which is sharply less than 3+⌈log 2(MN)⌉ when M and N are of large size. To overcome the weaknesses of the original scheme, in this paper, an improved image scrambling encryption scheme is proposed. In the improved scheme, the idea of the "self-correlation" method is used to resist the chosen-plaintext attack/known-plaintext attack. The corresponding simulations and analyses illustrate that the improved encryption method has good cryptographic properties, and can overcome the weakness of the original image encryption scheme. Finally, farther improvement is briefly presented for the future work.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3303-3327
Number of pages25
JournalCommunications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2012

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Numerical Analysis
  • Modelling and Simulation
  • Applied Mathematics


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