Occurrences of ore minerals and fluid inclusion study on the Kingking Porphyry copper-gold deposit, Eastern Mindanao, Philippines

Leilanie O. Suerte, Sho Nishihara, Akira Imai, Koichiro Watanabe, Graciano P. Yumul, Victor B. Maglambayan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


The Kingking deposit is a gold-rich porphyry copper deposit and the southernmost deposit at the eastern Mindanao mineralized belt, Philippines. It is underlain by Cretaceous-Paleogene sedimentary and volcanic rocks that are intruded by mineralized Miocene diorite porphyries and by barren Miocene-Pliocene dacite and diorite porphyries. The main alteration zones in the deposit are the inner potassic zone and the outer propylitic zone. The biotite-bearing diorite and hornblende diorite porphyries are the primary host rocks of mineralization. Two dominant copper minerals, bornite and chalcopyrite, which usually occur as fracture fillings, are associated with fine crystalline quartz veinlet stockworks in the mineralized diorites. Minor secondary covellite, chalcocite and digenite are also observed. The primary Cu-Fe sulfide phases initially deposited from ore fluids consisted of bornite solid solution (bnss) and intermediate solid solution (iss), which decomposed to form the bornite and chalcopyrite. Peculiar bornite pods that are different from dissemination and are associated with volcanic rock xenoliths in biotite-bearing diorite porphyry are noted in a drill hole. These pods of bornite are not associated with quartz veinlet stockworks. Fluid inclusion analyses show three types of inclusions contained in Kingking samples: two-phase fluid-rich and vapor-rich inclusions and polyphase hypersaline inclusions from porphyry-type quartz veinlet stockworks. The liquid-vapor homogenization temperatures (TH) and the dissolution temperature of halite daughter crystals (TM) from the polyphase hypersaline inclusions predominantly range from 400°C up to >500°C. The wide range of TH and TM may be due to heterogeneous trapping of variable ratios of vapor and brine. For some inclusions, TH > TM and in some cases, TH < TM, indicating that some of the brine was supersaturated or saturated with NaCl at the time of entrapment. Calculated salinity of the polyphase hypersaline inclusions ranges from 40 to 60% NaCl equivalent. Temperature and vapor pressure of mineralized fluid were estimated to be 400°C and 16 MPa.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)219-229
Number of pages11
JournalResource Geology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2007

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geology
  • Geochemistry and Petrology


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