NET-CAGE characterizes the dynamics and topology of human transcribed cis-regulatory elements

Shigeki Hirabayashi, Shruti Bhagat, Yu Matsuki, Yujiro Takegami, Takuya Uehata, Ai Kanemaru, Masayoshi Itoh, Kotaro Shirakawa, Akifumi Takaori-Kondo, Osamu Takeuchi, Piero Carninci, Shintaro Katayama, Yoshihide Hayashizaki, Juha Kere, Hideya Kawaji, Yasuhiro Murakawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

55 Citations (Scopus)


Promoters and enhancers are key cis-regulatory elements, but how they operate to generate cell type-specific transcriptomes is not fully understood. We developed a simple and robust method, native elongating transcript–cap analysis of gene expression (NET-CAGE), to sensitively detect 5′ ends of nascent RNAs in diverse cells and tissues, including unstable transcripts such as enhancer-derived RNAs. We studied RNA synthesis and degradation at the transcription start site level, characterizing the impact of differential promoter usage on transcript stability. We quantified transcription from cis-regulatory elements without the influence of RNA turnover, and show that enhancer–promoter pairs are generally activated simultaneously on stimulation. By integrating NET-CAGE data with chromatin interaction maps, we show that cis-regulatory elements are topologically connected according to their cell type specificity. We identified new enhancers with high sensitivity, and delineated primary locations of transcription within super-enhancers. Our NET-CAGE dataset derived from human and mouse cells expands the FANTOM5 atlas of transcribed enhancers, with broad applicability to biomedical research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1369-1379
Number of pages11
JournalNature genetics
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 1 2019
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Genetics


Dive into the research topics of 'NET-CAGE characterizes the dynamics and topology of human transcribed cis-regulatory elements'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this