Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an intractable disease of the small pulmonary artery that involves multiple inflammatory factors. We hypothesized that a redox-sensitive transcription factor, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), which regulates important inflammatory cytokines, plays a pivotal role in PAH. We investigated the activity of NF-κB in explanted lungs from patients with PAH and in a rat model of PAH. We also examined a nanotechnology-based therapeutic intervention in the rat model. Immunohistochemistry results indicated that the activity of NF-κB increased in small pulmonary arterial lesions and alveolar macrophages in lungs from patients with PAH compared with lungs from control patients. In a rat model of monocrotaline-induced PAH, single intratracheal instillation of polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) resulted in delivery of NPs into lungs for ≤ 14 days postinstillation. The NP-mediated NF-κB decoy delivery into lungs prevented monocrotaline-induced NF-κB activation. Blockade of NF-κB by NP-mediated delivery of the NF-κB decoy attenuated inflammation and proliferation and, thus, attenuated the development of PAH and pulmonary arterial remodeling induced by monocrotaline. Treatment with the NF-κB decoy NP 3 weeks after monocrotaline injection improved the survival rale as compared with vehicle administration. In conclusion, these data suggest that NF-κB plays a primary role in the pathogenesis of PAH and, thus, represent a new target for therapeutic intervention in PAH. This nanotechnology platform may be developed as a novel molecular approach for treatment of PAH in the future.
|Number of pages
|Published - May 1 2009
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Internal Medicine