In aquatic arthropods, molting is a pivotal physiological process for normal development, but it may also expose them to higher risks from xenobiotics, because the organism may take up additional water during that time. This study aimed to assess the effects of molting on bioconcentration and survival after 96-h exposure to insecticide fipronil with or without oxygenase (CYP450s) inhibitor piperonyl butoxide (PBO) of two estuarine resident marine crustacean species: the sand shrimp Crangon uritai and the kuruma prawn Penaeus japonicus, with 96-h LC50 value of fipronil = 2.0 µg/L and 0.2 µg/L, respectively. Two graded concentrations included group high (H) (equivalent to the 96-h LC50 values) and low (L) (one-tenth of the H group concentration). Molting and survival were individually checked, and internal concentrations of fipronil and its metabolites (fipronil desulfinyl, fipronil sulfide, fipronil sulfone) were measured. The results showed that, only fipronil and fipronil sulfone were detected from organism, and that internal concentrations of these insecticides in molted specimens were higher than those of unmolted ones but comparable with those of dead ones. Accordingly, mortality was more frequent in molted specimens than those that were unmolted. Furthermore, involvement of oxygenase and higher lethal body burden threshold may confer higher tolerance to fipronil in sand shrimp than in the kuruma prawn. This study is the first to demonstrate that the body-residue-based approach is useful for deciphering the causal factors underlying fipronil toxicity, but highlights the need to consider physiological factors in arthropods, which influence and lie beyond body burden, molting and drug metabolism.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Aquatic Science
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis