Peroxisomes are single-membrane organelles essential for cell metabolism including the β-oxidation of fatty acids, synthesis of etherlipid plasmalogens, and redox homeostasis. Investigations into peroxisome biogenesis and the human peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs) have identified 14 PEX genes encoding peroxins involved in peroxisome biogenesis and the mutation of PEX genes is responsible for the PBDs. Many recent findings have further advanced our understanding of the biology, physiology, and consequences of a functional deficit of peroxisomes. In this Review, we discuss cell defense mechanisms that counteract oxidative stress by 1) a proapoptotic Bcl-2 factor BAK-mediated release to the cytosol of H2O2-degrading catalase from peroxisomes and 2) peroxisomal import suppression of catalase by Ser232-phosphorylation of Pex14, a docking protein for the Pex5–PTS1 complex. With respect to peroxisome division, the important issue of how the energy-rich GTP is produced and supplied for the division process was recently addressed by the discovery of a nucleoside diphosphate kinase-like protein, termed DYNAMO1 in a lower eukaryote, which has a mammalian homologue NME3. In regard to the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of PBDs, a new PBD model mouse defective in Pex14 manifests a dysregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-TrkB pathway, an important signaling pathway for cerebellar morphogenesis. Communications between peroxisomes and other organelles are also addressed.
|Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Cell Research
|Published - Nov 2022
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology