Molecular basis for the activation of actinoporins by lipids

Jose M.M. Caaveiro, Kouhei Tsumoto

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

2 Citations (Scopus)


Actinoporins are a family of homologous pore forming proteins from sea anemones. They are one of the few families of eukaryotic toxins that have been characterized in depth. Actinoporins are activated by lipids in the context of bilayers, especially in cell and in model membranes containing the lipid sphingomyelin. These proteins must undergo conformational changes induced upon interaction with lipids in the membrane, where they form cytotoxic pores causing cell death and lethality. Herein we review a list of procedures and techniques to study this family of toxins, with the goal of elucidating the physicochemical, thermodynamic and structural basis for their activation by lipids. The emerging picture indicates that actinoporins undergo a stepwise process that includes binding to the membrane, oligomerization, and pore formation, in this order. The key transformation from the inactive oligomer to the active pore is catalyzed by sphingomyelin, explaining the key role of this lipid in the function of actinoporins.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPore-Forming Toxins
EditorsAlejandro P. Heuck
PublisherAcademic Press Inc.
Number of pages30
ISBN (Print)9780128238585
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2021

Publication series

NameMethods in Enzymology
ISSN (Print)0076-6879
ISSN (Electronic)1557-7988

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology


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