Modeling free-flow speed according to different water depths-From the viewpoint of dynamic hydraulic pressure

M. W. Liu, Yoshinao Oeda, Tomonori Sumi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, we propose a method of modeling free flow speed from the viewpoint of hydroplaning. First, the lift forces for different water depths were estimated using Bernoulli's equation. Compared with the result of the experimental test performed by the Japan Automobile Research Institute, the hydrodynamic pressure coefficient was determined to be 0.03 (tf s2/m4). The validation of the predicted lift force is found in another published paper. A very good match is found between the computed values by the proposed numerical model and the data in other published papers. Then, the loss of contact force is considered to evaluate the hydroplaning performance of a tire. To simulate the hydroplaning speed, a tire-sliding model was utilized to obtain the traction and friction forces between the road surface and the tire. The observation data obtained in Japan in 2009 is compared with the physically computed hydroplaning speed, yielding the conclusion that the traction force at the measured desired speed is, on average, 23.4% of the traction force at hydroplaning speed. The analytical model offers a useful tool to quantitatively show that the free flow speed changes as the water depth increase.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13-21
Number of pages9
JournalTransportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment
Publication statusPublished - Aug 1 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Transportation
  • General Environmental Science


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