Using a recently developed probabilistic approach of a conditional directional distance function, we measure the effect of economic growth on countries’ environmental efficiency in carbon dioxide emissions for a sample of 99 countries over the period of 1980–2010. Our approach directly accounts for the exogenous factors influencing countries’ environmental production; therefore, we do not impose the separability condition on the estimated environmental efficiencies. When examining the entire sample as well as the sample of developed countries, our results reveal an inverted U-shaped relationship between countries’ GDP per capita and environmental efficiency. However, when examining the relationship for the sample of developing countries, the results reveal an N-shaped form. Moreover, our results show that countries ratifying the Kyoto Protocol tend to have higher efficiency scores, implying that their mitigation activity is less costly.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Economics and Econometrics
- Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law