The relation between the mass accretion rate on to the circumstellar disc and the rate of mass ejection by magnetically driven winds is investigated using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulations. Using a spherical cloud core with a varying ratio of thermal to gravitational energy, which determines the mass accretion rate on to the disc, to define the initial conditions, the outflow propagation for approximately 104 yr after protostar formation is then calculated for several cloud cores. The mass ejection rate and accretion rate are comparable only when the magnetic energy of the initial cloud core is comparable to the gravitational energy. Consequently, in strongly magnetized clouds a higher mass accretion rate naturally produces bothmassive protostars and massive outflows. The simulated outflowmass, momentum, kinetic energy and momentum flux agree well with observations, indicating that massive stars form through the same mechanism as low-mass stars but require a significantly strong magnetic field to launch massive outflows.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Space and Planetary Science