Lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis: Concurrence and/or dependence? Studies in inbred mouse strains

Shintaro Nakao, Kazuichi Maruyama, Souska Zandi, Mark I. Melhorn, Mahdi Taher, Kousuke Noda, Eyad Nusayr, Tom Doetschman, Ali Hafezi-Moghadam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Citations (Scopus)


Genetic background significantly affects angiogenesis in mice. However, lymphangiogenic response to growth factors (GFs) in different strains has not been studied. We report constitutive expression of corneal lymphatics that extends beyond the limits of normal limbal vessels. In untreated corneas, the total number (P=0.006), the number above blood vessels (P=10-8), and the area of preexisting lymphatics (P=0.007) were significantly higher in C57BL/6 than in BALB/c mice. Normal corneas of three other strains, the nu/nu, 129E, and Black Swiss mice, showed in most parameters intermediate phenotypes. FGF-2-/- mice showed significantly less preexisting lymphatics than control (P=0.009), which suggests a role for this GF in lymphatic development. VEGF-A-induced corneal lymphangiogenic response was significantly higher in BALB/c mice (P=0.03), but it did not differ significantly in C57BL/6 mice, when compared to PBS-implanted control. FGFR-3 expression was higher in C57BL/6 than BALB/c mice, which suggests GFreceptor heterogeneity as a possible explanation for strain-dependent differences. The heterogeneity of preexisting lymphatic vessels in the limbal area significantly correlated with the extent of corneal lymphangiogenesis (VEGF-A: r=0.7, P=0.01; FGF-2: r=0.96, P=10-5) in BALB/c but not in C57BL/6 mice. Removal of conjunctival lymphatics did not affect GF-induced lymphangiogenesis. This work introduces physiological expression of lymphatics without blood vessels, which indicates that angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, even though intricately related, may occur independently. Furthermore, we show strain-dependence of normal and GF-induced lymphangiogenesis. These differences may affect disease development in various strains.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)504-513
Number of pages10
JournalFASEB Journal
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2010
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biotechnology
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics


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