Early-stage esophageal carcinomas, particularly cases of intraepithelial carcinoma and mucosal carcinoma, are extremely difficult to detect because the patients have no particular complaints, and findings on the x-rays are nil. At present, endoscopic examination is the only tool of any value for discerning such lesions. Lugol-combined endoscopy with biopsy has proven to be most effective for detecting the presence and spread of small malignant lesions of the esophagus. Studies were conducted on the diagnostic features of one intraepithelial, five mucosal and 29 submucosal carcinomas of the esophagus, detected through the use of Lugol-combined endoscopy.
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