Aim: To investigate the existence of a bidirectional temporal relationship between periodontal condition and glycaemic status. Materials and Methods: This longitudinal study included 2198 participants with mean age 43.4 ± 7.7 years, who underwent dental examinations in Yokohama, Japan, at two time points, 2003–2004 and 2008–2009, at an interval of 5 years. Periodontal condition was assessed by the mean value of probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL). Glycaemic status was assessed by fasting glucose and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Results: The cross-lagged panel models showed the effect of HbA1c at baseline on mean PPD at follow-up (β = 0.044, p =.039). There was a marginal effect of fasting glucose on the mean PPD (β = 0.037, p =.059). It was similar to the effect of fasting glucose or HbAlc on mean CAL. However, in the opposite direction, no effect of mean PPD or CAL at baseline on fasting glucose or HbAlc at follow-up was identified. Conclusions: This study demonstrated a unidirectional relationship between glycaemic status and periodontal condition. The study population, however, had mostly mild periodontitis. Future studies are needed to investigate the effect of periodontal condition on glycaemic status in patients with severe periodontitis.
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