Liquid injection ALD of Pb (Zr,Ti) Ox thin films by a combination of self-regulating component oxide processes

Takayuki Watanabe, Susanne Hoffmann-Eifert, Frank Peter, Shaobo Mi, Chunlin Jia, Cheol Seong Hwang, Rainer Waser

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28 Citations (Scopus)


Quaternary Pb (Zr,Ti) Ox [PZT] films were deposited at 240°C by a combination of liquid injection atomic layer depositions (ALD) of binary PbO, Ti Ox, and Zr Ox thin films. We used water as the oxidant and two sets of precursors: Pb (C11 H19 O2) 2 [Pb (DPM)2], Zr (C11 H19 O2) 4 [Zr (DPM)4], and either Ti (O C3 H7) 2 (C11 H19 O2) 2 [Ti (Oi-Pr)2 (DPM)2] or (TiO C3 H7) 4 [Ti (Oi-Pr)4]. These precursors were dissolved in ethylcyclohexane and separately injected into a vaporizer. The deposition rates of the metal elements were investigated as a function of the input of the solutions. We started the ALD-PZT process with Ti (Oi-Pr)2 (DPM)2. When the input of one solution was increased, the deposition rates of the metal elements continued to increase or fluctuate, showing a complex interdependence. A PZT film deposited on a three-dimensional (3D) structure had an inhomogeneous cation composition. The film uniformity on the 3D structure was significantly improved by substituting Ti (Oi-Pr)2 (DPM)2 with Ti (Oi-Pr)4. In this ALD-PZT process, self-regulated growths were confirmed for Pb and Zr. Although the deposition rate of Ti did not saturate due to a catalytic decomposition, this study suggests that the multilayer stacking ALD process is an effective method for building up homogeneous layers of multicomponent materials on desired 3D structures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)G262-G269
JournalJournal of the Electrochemical Society
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2007
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Electrochemistry
  • Materials Chemistry


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