This study explores the relationship between inclusive wealth, economic growth, and productivity of natural capital (including forestry, fishery, fossil energy reserves and minerals) for 140 countries between 1990 and 2014. For this objective, a Malmquist productivity index is developed, and regression analysis is performed. The results are threefold. First, we found that natural capital deterioration constituted the main driving force of declining wealth per capita following fossil fuel extraction. Second, the adjustment to a conventional productivity growth measure depends on GDP growth and an endowment growth shift of natural capital relative to other input factors. Third, we also found that the initial phase of GDP growth was accompanied by slower natural capital utilization followed by a phase of deterioration as these countries continue to develop economically. With further economic development, enhanced technology and effective natural resources utilization limit the material basis and result in reduced natural capital extraction. These results imply that natural capital extraction management for a broader income level can be implemented for sustainability in both the short and long term.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Developmental and Educational Psychology
- Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
- Sociology and Political Science
- Social Sciences(all)