The structure of a protein complex needs to be controlled appropriately to maximize its functions. Herein, we report the linear polymerization of bacterial alkaline phosphatase (BAP) through the site-specific cross-linking reaction catalyzed by Trametes sp. laccase (TL). We introduced a peptide loop containing a tyrosine (Y-Loop) to BAP, and the Y-Looped BAP was treated with TL. The Y-Looped BAP formed linear polymers, whereas BAP fused with a C-terminal peptide containing a tyrosine (Y-tag) showed an irregular shape after TL treatment. The sterically confined structure of the Y-Loop could be responsible for the formation of linear BAP polymers. TL-catalyzed copolymerization of Y-Looped BAP and a Y-tagged chimeric antibody-binding protein, pG2pA-Y, resulted in the formation of linear bifunctional protein copolymers that could be employed as protein probes in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Copolymers comprising Y-Looped BAP and pG2pA-Y at a molar ratio of 100:1 exhibited the highest signal in the ELISA with 26- and 20-fold higher than a genetically fused chimeric protein, BAP-pG2pA-Y, and its polymeric form, respectively. This result revealed that the morphology of the copolymers was the most critical feature to improve the functionality of the protein polymers as detection probes, not only for immunoassays but also for other diagnostic applications.