Large-eddy simulation of flow around an isolated building: A step-by-step analysis of influencing factors on turbulent statistics

Tsubasa Okaze, Hideki Kikumoto, Hiroki Ono, Masashi Imano, Naoki Ikegaya, Takamasa Hasama, Keisuke Nakao, Takeshi Kishida, Yuichi Tabata, Keigo Nakajima, Ryuichiro Yoshie, Yoshihide Tominaga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

57 Citations (Scopus)


We designed and exclusively performed a wind tunnel experiment to obtain high-quality and high-resolution measurement results for three components of mean and fluctuating velocities around a 1: 1: 2 isolated building to establish a benchmark case for large-eddy simulation (LES) as a part of the activities of the Architectural Institute of Japan. Subsequently, we conducted LES to investigate the effect of computational grid arrangement on turbulent statistics by changing three grid arrangements. Finally, we performed a comparison by changing spatial discretization schemes, sub-grid scale (SGS) turbulence models, and convergence criteria. A grid in which the width of a building was discretized into 20 grids yielded sufficient resolution to reproduce the mean flow and second-order turbulent statistics. Under this appropriate grid arrangement, in the condition that the blending ratio of the first-order upwind interpolation scheme with the second-order linear interpolation scheme from 5 to 10%, the appropriate second-order statistics of wind velocity around the isolated building was obtained and numerical oscillation was effectively removed. Then, with this grid, any SGS model yielded appropriate results. In addition, the convergence criteria had little effects on the LES results if stable solution was obtained. Because the convergence criteria greatly affect the total calculation cost, weaker appropriate criteria should be set.

Original languageEnglish
Article number108021
JournalBuilding and Environment
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Building and Construction


Dive into the research topics of 'Large-eddy simulation of flow around an isolated building: A step-by-step analysis of influencing factors on turbulent statistics'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this