Lack of catch-up in weight gain may intermediate between pregnancies with hyperemesis gravidarum and reduced fetal growth: the Japan Environment and Children’s Study

Japan Environment, Children’s Study Group

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2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Women with nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) have higher birth weight infants, while those with hyperemesis gravidarum, a severe manifestation of NVP, have lower birth weight infants. We aimed to investigate the associations between maternal weight loss (a consequence of hyperemesis gravidarum), NVP, and infant birth weight. Methods: This study was a secondary analysis of a nationwide birth cohort in Japan. Singleton pregnancies delivered at 28–41 weeks of gestation were included in the analysis. Women were categorized based on their weight change in the 1st trimester (as a proportion to their pre-pregnancy weight: > + 3%, > 0 to + 3%, > -3 to 0%, > -5 to -3%, ≤ -5%) and severity of NVP (no nausea, only nausea, vomiting but able to eat, vomiting and unable to eat). The effects of weight change and severity of NVP on infant birth weight and small for gestational age (SGA) were assessed using regression models. We further examined how these effects could be modified by maternal weight gain up to the 2nd trimester. Results: Among 91,313 women, 5,196 (5.7%) lost ≥ 5% of their pre-pregnancy weight and 9,983 (10.9%) experienced vomiting and were unable to eat in the 1st trimester. Women with weight loss ≥ 5% in the 1st trimester had infants 66 (95% CI: 53, 78) g lighter and higher odds of SGA (aOR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.47) than women who gained > 3% during the same period. However, when adjusting for weight gain up to the 2nd trimester, women with weight loss ≥ 5% in the 1st trimester had infants 150 (95% CI: 135, 165) g heavier and lower odds of SGA (aOR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.33, 0.46) than those who gained > 3% during the same period. In contrast, women with more severe NVP tended to have infants with larger birth weight and lower odds of SGA compared to women without NVP. These trends were strengthened when adjusting for weight gain up to the 2nd trimester. Conclusions: Our study suggests the possibility that reduced fetal growth in pregnancies with hyperemesis gravidarum may be caused by the lack of catch-up in gestational weight gain up to the 2nd trimester.

Original languageEnglish
Article number199
JournalBMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Volume22
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology

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