Iron in p-type silicon: A comprehensive model

Song Zhao, Aimée L. Smith, Sang H. Ahn, Gerd J. Norga, Marlene T. Platero, Hiroshi Nakashima, Lucy V.C. Assali, Jürgen Michel, Lionel C. Kimerling

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    2 Citations (Scopus)


    Contamination by transition metal impurities is a major concern in Si processing. The bulk contamination tendency is measured as the product of the metal ion diffusivity and its solubility in Si under processing conditions. In particular, iron (Fe) is incorporated as a highly mobile and soluble (Fei+) species. Surface contamination during wafer cleaning is driven by liquid-solid equilibria dictated by the choice of cleaning solution. In Si solid solution Fe is a near-midgap recombination center. Due to its high mobility Fe in solution in p-Si normally exists in the form of an ion-pair with a negatively charged acceptor ion. Gettering, the removal of Fe from active device regions, is accomplished by designing remote regions of lower chemical potential (segregation gettering) or with a high density of heterogeneous nuclei for precipitation (relaxation gettering). This paper presents a comprehensive model for the deposition of Fe from liquid solution, the ion pair structure and stability, and the gettering of Fe from p/p+ epilayers.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)429-436
    Number of pages8
    JournalMaterials Science Forum
    Issue numberPART 1
    Publication statusPublished - 1997

    All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

    • Materials Science(all)
    • Condensed Matter Physics
    • Mechanics of Materials
    • Mechanical Engineering


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