In cases in which dental pulp tissue is accidentally exposed, direct pulp capping is often performed to induce reparative dentin formation. Although macrophages are essential for the inflammatory response and tissue repair, the emergence pattern and the role of macrophages in dental pulp tissue have not been clarified. Here, we investigated the emergence of M1/M2 macrophages in dental pulp tissue after a direct pulp capping and the effects of M2 macrophages on odontoblastic differentiation of the dental pulp stem cell (DPSC) clones. The emergence of macrophages in dental pulp tissue was investigated using a rat direct pulp capping model. Alizarin Red S staining and quantitative RT-PCR was performed to examine the effect of M2 macrophages on the mineralization and odontoblastic differentiation of DPSC clones. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that M1 macrophages were detected in dental pulp tissue after treatment and increased in number at three days after treatment. However, M2 macrophages gradually increased in number in dental pulp tissue after treatment, with the highest level recorded at seven days post-operation. Additionally, conditioned medium from M2 macrophages induced odontoblast-like differentiation of DPSC clones. These results suggest that macrophages play a role in the inflammatory response and reparative dentin formation after dental pulp exposure.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Space and Planetary Science