OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that intraplaque hemorrhage is a predictor of restenosis after carotid artery stenting (CAS), the association between intraplaque high-intensity signal (HIS) on time-of-flight MR angiography (TOF-MRA), as a marker of intraplaque hemorrhage, and restenosis after CAS was assessed in the present observational study. METHODS Consecutive patients who underwent initial CAS for atherosclerotic stenosis in the cervical internal carotid artery in the authors' department were enrolled. Of these, patients without preprocedural cervical TOF-MRA were excluded. Outcome measures were ≥ 50% restenosis, defined as a peak systolic velocity of > 1.3 m/sec; or occlusion and ≥ 70% restenosis, defined as a peak systolic velocity of > 2.1 m/sec; or occlusion on carotid duplex ultrasound. RESULTS Of 230 consecutive patients who underwent initial CAS, 22 without preprocedural cervical TOF-MRA were excluded. Of the remaining 208 patients (mean age 73 years; 33 women), 46 had intraplaque HIS. Ultrasound follow-up was not performed in 4 patients. The median follow-up duration was 3.2 years (interquartile range 1.7-5.1 years). During the follow-up period, 102 patients had ≥ 50% restenosis and 36 had ≥ 70% restenosis. Intraplaque HIS was significantly associated with increased risk of ≥ 50% restenosis (adjusted hazard ratio 2.18; 95% CI 1.28-3.68) and ≥ 70% restenosis (adjusted hazard ratio 3.12; 95% CI 1.32-7.52). CONCLUSIONS Intraplaque HIS on TOF-MRA was associated with increased risk of restenosis after CAS. The present results indicate that intraplaque hemorrhage is a predictor of restenosis after CAS.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Clinical Neurology