Intermetallic formation and fluidity in Sn-Rich Sn-Cu-Ni alloys

C. M. Gourlay, K. Nogita, J. Read, A. K. Dahle

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44 Citations (Scopus)


This paper investigates the phase equilibria and solidification behavior of Sn-Cu-Ni alloys with compositions in the range of 0 wt.% to 1.5 wt.% Cu and 0 wt.% to 0.3 wt.% Ni. The isothermal section at 268°C in the Sn-rich corner was determined. No evidence for a ternary phase was found, and the section is in good agreement with past experimental studies that report wide solubility ranges for (Cu,Ni) 6Sn 5 and (Ni,Cu) 3Sn 4. The vacuum fluidity test was applied to compositions that are liquid at 268°C to map the variation in microstructure and flow behavior with composition in this system. Significant variations in fluidity length were measured among the Sn-Cu-Ni alloys, and the variations correlate with the microstructure that develops during solidification. The generated fluidity map enables the selection of Sn-Cu-Ni solder compositions that exhibit good fluidity behavior during solidification and form near-eutectic microstructures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)56-69
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Electronic Materials
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2010
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Materials Chemistry


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