Periprosthetic osteolysis remains as a major complication of total joint replacement surgery. Modulation of macrophage polarization with interleukin-4 (IL-4) has emerged as an effective means to limit wear particle-induced osteolysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of local IL-4 delivery in treating preexisting particle-induced osteolysis. To this end, recently established 8 week modification of murine continuous femoral intramedullary particle infusion model was utilized. Subcutaneous infusion pumps were used to deliver polyethylene (PE) particles into mouse distal femur for 4 weeks to induce osteolysis. IL-4 was then added to the particle infusion for another 4 weeks. This delayed IL-4 treatment (IL-4 Del) was compared to IL-4 delivered continuously (IL-4 Cont) with PE particles from the beginning and to the infusion of particles alone for 8 weeks. Both IL-4 treatments were highly effective in preventing and repairing preexisting particle-induced bone loss as assessed by μCT. Immunofluorescence indicated a significant reduction in the number of F4/80 + iNOS + M1 macrophages and increase in the number of F4/80 + CD206 + M2 macrophages with both IL-4 treatments. Reduction in the number of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase + osteoclasts and increase in the amount of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) + osteoblasts was also observed with both IL-4 treatments likely explaining the regeneration of bone in these samples. Interesting, slightly more bone formation and ALP + osteoblasts were seen in the IL-4 Del group than in the IL-4 Cont group although these differences were not statistically significant. The study is a proof of principle that osteolytic lesions can be repaired via modulation of macrophage polarization.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Ceramics and Composites
- Biomedical Engineering
- Metals and Alloys