Interactive evolutionary computation: fusion of the capabilities of EC optimization and human evaluation

Hideyuki Takagi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1150 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, we survey the research on interactive evolutionary computation (/EC). The IEC is an EC that optimizes systems based on subjective human evaluation. The definition and features of the IEC are first described and then/allowed by an overview of the IEC research. The overview primarily consists of application research and interface research. In this survey, the IEC application fields include graphic arts and animation, three-dimensional CG lighting, music, editorial design, industrial design, facial image generation, speech processing and synthesis, hearing aid fitting, virtual reality, media database retrieval, data mining, image processing, control and robotics, food industry, geophysics, education, entertainment, social system, and so on. Also in this survey, the interface research to reduce human fatigue includes improving fitness input interfaces and displays based on fitness prediction, accelerating EC convergence especially in early EC generations, examining combinations of interactive and normal EC, and investigating active user intervention. Finally, we discuss the IEC from the point of the future research direction of computational intelligence. In order to show the status quo IEC research, this paper primarily features a survey of about 250 IEC research papers rather than a carefully selected representation of a few papers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1275-1296
Number of pages22
JournalProceedings of the IEEE
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2001

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Computer Science(all)


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