Intake of coffee associated with decreased depressive symptoms among elderly Japanese women: A multi-center cross-sectional study

Three-Generation Study of Women on Diets and Health Study Group

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17 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Depression in elderly people is a major global concern around the world. Epidemiological evidence of the association of beverages with depressive symptoms has received research attention; however, epidemiological studies on the association of coffee and green tea consumption with depressive symptoms among the elderly population are limited. The objective of this study is to cross-sectionally examine the association of depressive symptoms with the intake of coffee, green tea, and caffeine and to verify the antidepressant effect of caffeine. Methods: The subjects were 1,992 women aged 65–94 years. Intakes of coffee, green tea, and caffeine, as well as depressive symptoms, were assessed with a validated brief dietary history questionnaire (BDHQ) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for depressive symptoms with adjustments for potential confounders. Results: Coffee intake was associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms, the ORs of which for the 4th versus the 1st quartiles of intake was 0.64 (95% CI, 0.46–0.88, P for trend = 0.01) in a fully adjusted model. Caffeine intake was marginally associated with depressive symptoms, but the association was not statistically significant (OR 0.75; 95% CI, 0.55–1.02, P for trend = 0.058). Conclusion: The result suggests that the inverse association of coffee intake with depressive symptoms might be associated with not only caffeine intake but also some other substances in coffee or factors related to coffee intake. Because of the cross-sectional design of the present study, longitudinal studies are required to confirm the present finding.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)338-344
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of epidemiology
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Epidemiology


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