Innate immune cells such as neutrophils, monocyte-macrophages and microglial cells are pivotal for the health and disease of the retina. For the maintenance of retinal homeostasis, these cells and immunosuppressive molecules in the eye actively regulate the induction and the expression of inflammation in order to prevent excessive activation and subsequent tissue damage. In the disease context, these regulatory mechanisms are modulated genetically and/or by environmental stimuli such as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), and a chronic innate immune response regulates or contributes to the formation of diverse retinal disorders such as uveitis, retinitis pigmentosa, retinal vascular diseases and retinal fibrosis. Here we summarize the recent knowledge regarding the innate immune response in both ocular immune regulation and inflammatory retinal diseases, and we describe the potential of the innate immune response as a biomarker and therapeutic target.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Sensory Systems