Wild-type strains of measles virus (MV) isolated in B95a cells use the signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM; also known as CD 150) as a cellular receptor, whereas the Edmonston strain and its derivative vaccine strains can use both SLAM and the ubiquitously expressed CD46 as receptors. Among the major target cells for MV, lymphocytes and dendritic cells are known to express SLAM after activation, but monocytes have been reported to be SLAM-negative. In this study, SLAM expression on monocytes was examined under different conditions. When freshly isolated from the peripheral blood, monocytes did not express SLAM on the cell surface. However, monocytes became SLAM-positive after incubation with phytohaemagglutinin, bacterial lipopolysaccharide or MV. Anti-SLAM monoclonal antibodies efficiently blocked infection of activated monocytes with a wild-type strain of MV. These results indicate that SLAM is readily induced and acts as a monocyte receptor for MV.
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