In situ XAFS studies of Au particle formation by photoreduction in polymer solutions

Masafumi Harada, Hisahiro Einaga

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58 Citations (Scopus)


Formation mechanisms of metal particles (gold (Au) particles) in an aqueous ethanol solution of HAuCl4 with poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) by the photoreduction method were investigated by UV-vis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and in situ and ex situ X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis. The average diameters of the dilute and concentrated Au particles in PVP solution are estimated from TEM to be 106 Å and 925 Å, respectively. XAFS analysis was carried out to elucidate the reduction process of AuCl4- ionic species to metallic Au particles for the Au-L3 edge of the colloidal dispersions of the concentrated Au solutions. In the photoreduction process, the reduction of AuCl2 - species to Au0 atoms is a slower process than that of AuCl4- to AuCl2-, and the reduction of AuCl2- to Au0 atoms and the association of Au0 atoms to form seed Au particles (particle diameter between 5.5 and 30 Å) concurrently proceeds in the short-duration photoirradiation. In addition, in the long-duration photoirradiation, the slow progression of Au particle growth occurs with the association of Au0-Au0 metallic bonds, resulting in the formation of larger Au particles (particle diameter larger than 500 Å).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6536-6543
Number of pages8
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Jun 5 2007

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Spectroscopy
  • Electrochemistry


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