In situ on-line toxicity biomonitoring in water: Recent developments

Almut Gerhardt, Mary Kate Ingram, Ik Joon Kang, Shimon Ulitzur

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Citations (Scopus)


In situ on-line biomonitoring is an emerging branch of aquatic biomonitoring. On-line biomonitoring systems use behavioral and/or physiological stress responses of caged test organisms exposed in situ either in a bypass system or directly in-stream. Sudden pollution waves are detected by several existing single-species on-line biomonitors, which until now have been placed mostly in streamside laboratories. However, recent achievements have been multispecies biomonitors, mobile biomonitors for direct in-stream use, development of new instruments, new methods for data analysis and alarm generation, biomonitors for use in soil and sediment, and scientific research supporting responses as seen in on-line biomonitors by linking them to other biological and ecological effects. Mobile on-line monitoring platforms containing an array of biomonitors, biosensors, and chemical monitoring equipment might be the future trend, especially in monitoring transboundary rivers at country borders as well as in coastal zones.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2263-2271
Number of pages9
JournalEnvironmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2006
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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