Protonated amino groups are ubiquitous in nature and important in the fields of chemistry and biology. In search of efficient polyamine analogues, we have performed DFT calculations on the interactions of some simple cyclic and constrained protonated diamines with the DNA base pairs and compared the results with those obtained for the corresponding interactions involving linear diamines, which mimic biogenic polyamines such as spermine. The interactions are mainly governed by the strong hydrogen bonding between the ligand and the DNA base pairs. The DFT calculations suggest that the major-groove N7 interaction (GC base pair) with linear diamine is energetically more favored than other possible interactions, as reported with spermine. The cyclic diamines exhibited better interactions with the N7 site of the AT and GC base pairs of DNA than the linear diamines. The net atomic charges calculated for the protonated amine hydrogens were higher for the cyclic systems than for the linear diamines, inducing better binding affinity with the DNA base pairs. The stable conformers of cyclic diamines were predicted using the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory. The positions of the protonated diamine groups in these cyclic systems are crucial for effective binding with the DNA base pairs. The DFT-calculated results show that diequatorial (ee) 1,2-cyclohexadiamine (CHDA) is a promising candidate as a polyamine analogue for biogenic polyamines. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed using explicit water molecules for the interaction of representative ligands with the DNA base pairs to examine the influence of solvent molecules on such interactions.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Materials Chemistry