Background: Medical circumstances in Japanese patients with cancer of the corpus uteri have greatly changed since the late 1990s, including the introduction of concomitant therapy with taxane and platinum. We evaluated changes in survival rates for this cancer following these advances by analyzing data from population-based cancer registries in Japan. Methods: Data were available for 8562 cases of cancer of the corpus uteri from six prefectural cancer registries. We defined the two periods of 1993-2000 (1st period) and 2001-2006 (2nd period). Relative survival (RS) in each period was calculated to assess changes using an excess mortality model, with adjustment for age group (15-54, 55-69, and 70-99 years), extent of disease (localized, regional, and distant), and histological subtype. Results: Overall 5-year RS improved from 77.7% in the 1st period to 80.2% in the 2nd period, with an excess hazard ratio (EHR) of 0.785 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.705-0.873). Five-year RS significantly improved in the group aged 55-69 years, in all groups by extent of disease, and in the endometrioid adenocarcinoma group. In particular, 5-year RS significantly improved in patients with endometrioid adenocarcinoma, from 84.5% to 89.7%, with an EHR of 0.698 (95% CI, 0.560-0.870). Conclusion: Overall 5-year RS for cancer of the corpus uteri in Japan improved from the 1990s to early 2000s. These improvements might have been aided by the comprehensive medical development of management for this cancer, including the spread of concomitant therapy with taxane and platinum as a standard adjuvant chemotherapy in the early 2000s.
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