In an assemblage of multiple predators sharing a single prey species, the combined effects of the component species may scale unpredictably because of emergent interspecific interactions. Prior studies suggest that chaotic but persistent community dynamics are induced by intra-/interspecific interactions between native and nonnative parasitoids competing over a shared host. Here, we test the impact of the nonnative parasitoid Heterospilus prosopidis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on the intraspecific interference and offspring sex ratio of the native parasitoid Anisopteromalus calandrae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). We found that the nonnative parasitoid reduced intraspecific interference among native parasitoids and decreased the proportion of female offspring produced by the native parasitoid (predicted under conditions of reduced host availability). At higher host densities, the nonnative parasitoid contributed less to the total proportion of hosts parasitized, as its innate saturating Type II response changed to a dome-shaped Type IV response with increasing density of the native parasitoid, while the native parasitoid retained its increasing Type I response. This inverse host-density-dependent response between the two parasitoids and associated competitive superiority can explain the observed changes in parasitism; at high host densities, the searching efficiency of the native parasitoid increases via host feeding while the nonnative parasitoid experiences egg limitation. These results highlight the importance of the complementary top-down effects of multiple consumers on a single resource.
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