(IgG4-RD) is an immune-mediated fibrotic disorder characterized by severe resolution of inflammation and dysregulation of wound healing. IgG4-RD has been considered a unique disease since 2003, and significant progress has been achieved in the understanding of its essential features. The central role of B cells in IgG4-RD has been demonstrated by the robust clinical responsiveness of IgG4-RD to B cell depletion and the identification of multiple self-antigens that promote B cell expansion. Studies have increasingly revealed critical roles of these B cells and T cells in the pathogenesis of IgG4-RD, and we and other authors further identified CD4+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes as the main tissue-infiltrating CD4+ T cell subset in IgG4-RD tissues. Additionally, T follicular helper cell subsets that play a role in IgG4 isotype switching have been identified. In this review, we discuss research on IgG4-RD and the roles of B cell and T cell subsets, as well as the functions of CD4+ cytotoxic T cells in IgG4-RD pathogenesis. We highlight our findings from ongoing research using single-cell analysis of infiltrating CD4+ cytotoxic T cells, CD4+ follicular helper T cells, and infiltrating B cells in IgG4-RD and propose a model for the pathogenesis of IgG4-RD.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- General Dentistry