Identifying subscripts and superscripts in mathematical documents

Walaa Aly, Seiichi Uchida, Masakazu Suzuki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


In mathematical OCR, it is necessary to analyze two-dimensional structures of the component characters and symbols in mathematical expressions printed in scientific documents. In this paper, we analyze the positional relationships between adjacent characters for the purpose of automatic discrimination between baseline characters, subscripts, and superscripts, which is one of the most important and delicate parts of structure analysis. It has been proven through a large-scale experiment that this discrimination can be carried out almost perfectly (~99.89%) by using the relative size and position of adjacent characters.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)195-209
Number of pages15
JournalMathematics in Computer Science
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2008

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Computational Mathematics
  • Computational Theory and Mathematics
  • Applied Mathematics


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