A cDNA coding a new H+/organic cation antiporter, human kidney-specific multidrug and toxin extrusion 2 (HMATE2-K), has been isolated from the human kidney. The hMATE2-K cDNA had an open reading frame that encodes a 566-amino acid protein, which shows 94, 82, 52, and 52% identity with the hMATE2, hMATE2-B, hMATE1, and rat MATE1, respectively. Reverse transcriptase-PCR revealed that hMATE2-K mRNA but not hMATE2 was expressed predominantly in the kidney, and hMATE2-B was ubiquitously found in all tissues examined except the kidney. The immunohistochemical analyses revealed that the HMATE2-K as well as the hMATE1 was localized at the brush border membranes of the proximal tubules. HEK293 cells that were transiently transfected with the hMATE2-K cDNA but not hMATE2-B exhibited the H+ gradient-dependent antiport of tetraethylammonium (TEA). Transfection of hMATE2-B had no affect on the hMATE2-K-mediated transport of TEA. hMATE2-K also transported cimetidine, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), procainamide, metformin, and N 1-methylnicotinamide. Kinetic analyses demonstrated that the Michaelis-Menten constants for the hMATE2-K-mediated transport of TEA, MPP, cimetidine, metformin, and procainamide were 0.83 mM, 93.5 μM, 0.37 mM, 1.05 mM, and 4.10 mM, respectively. Ammonium chloride-induced intracellular acidification significantly stimulated the hMATE2-K-dependent transport of organic cations such as TEA, MPP, procainamide, metformin, N1- methylnicotinamide, creatinine, guanidine, quinidine, quinine, thiamine, and verapamil. These results indicate that hMATE2-K is a new human kidney-specific H+/organic cation antiporter that is responsible for the tubular secretion of cationic drugs across the brush border membranes.
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