Dysplasia is an important problem in esophageal carcinogenesis, and there are controversial opinions concerning whether esophageal squamous dysplasia is a cancerous lesion. In the present study, it was histopathologically and biologically confirmed that dysplasia has a close correlation with cancer. Dysplasia was frequently observed with early stages of carcinoma. Although continuity of dysplastic lesions into the carcinoma area is not frequently observed, this continuity is observed in severe dysplasia more often than in mild or moderate dysplasia. The proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling index (PCNA LI) showed no substantial difference in the cell proliferative activities of dysplasia and intraepithelial carcinoma. In addition, p53 immunohistochemical analysis revealed that p53 positivities in carcinomas and dysplasias were contiguous to each other. These findings indicate that the relationship between the severity of dysplasia and carcinoma has high potential for leading to malignancy. Therefore, dysplasias can be treated as early cancerous lesions of the esophagus to prevent serious results.
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