Sandy beach ecosystems are decreasing worldwide and organisms living there are becoming threatened. The burrowing wolf spider Lycosa ishikariana is one such example. To establish effective conservation strategies under habitat fragmentation, we examined population genetic structure of L. ishikariana from mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene and 6 microsatellite loci. Mitochondrial sequence data revealed 6 population subgroups with very high fixation indices, indicating that L. ishikariana has a clear phylogeographic structure and that the level of differentiation among regions is considerable. In particular, one subgroup in the western Honshu mainland (clade G) has a highly distinct genetic structure, despite having no clear geographic barriers from its parapatric population. Moreover, the distribution ranges of the other two subgroups (clades D and E) were highly restricted, suggesting their vulnerability to local human impacts and highlighting their high conservation priorities. Microsatellite data revealed 10 subgroups that were compatible with the clades identified from the mitochondrial data. Fixation indices among these groups were very high, indicating a limited gene flow induced by male spiders. Based on these results, we proposed six conservation units of L. ishikariana and effective conservation/restoration strategies in the face of ongoing coastal armoring.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics