High-frequency S and S-coda waves at ocean-bottom seismometers

Shunsuke Takemura, Kentaro Emoto, Lina Yamaya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


To clarify the characteristics of high-frequency (> 1 Hz) S and S-coda waves at ocean-bottom seismometers (OBSs), we analyzed seismograms observed at permanent OBSs and inland broadband seismometers around the Kii Peninsula in southwest Japan along the Nankai Trough. The coda amplitudes (both horizontal and vertical) at the OBSs were much larger than those at the inland rock-site stations. Because coda amplitudes relative to those at inland rock-site stations have been used as site-amplification factors, large site amplifications for both components can be expected due to the presence of thick oceanic sediments just below the OBSs; however, the observed maximum S-wave amplitudes in the vertical component exhibited similar attenuation trends against epicentral distances at both OBS and inland stations. To clarify the causes of this discrepancy, we conducted numerical simulations of seismic wave propagation using various three-dimensional seismic velocity structure models. The results demonstrated that coda waves at OBSs mostly comprise multiple scattered waves within a thick (> 2 km) sedimentary layer; consequently, coda amplitudes at OBSs become much larger than those at inland rock-site stations. Our numerical simulations also confirmed the generation of large coda amplitudes at regions with seawater depths ≥ 4 km, where no OBS was deployed. However, the thick sedimentary layer and seawater have limited effects on maximum S-wave amplitudes at the OBSs. Given that the effects of a thick sedimentary layer and seawater on S and S-coda waves differ, we concluded that the coda-normalization technique for site-amplification correction against a rock-site station could not be applied if stations are located within regions above the thick sedimentary layer or deeper sea depths. The site amplifications at the OBSs were corrected according to the horizontal-to-vertical ratios at each OBS; we adjusted the simulated horizontal envelopes at the OBSs using these ratios of the observed S-coda waves. As well as inland seismometers, the site-corrected simulation results practically reproduced the observed high-frequency envelopes at OBSs. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
Article number20
Journalearth, planets and space
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geology
  • Space and Planetary Science


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