This report demonstrates a facile one-pot synthesis of hierarchically porous resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gels comprising mesoporous nanorod assemblies with two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal ordering by combining a supramolecular self-assembly strategy in the nanometer scale and phase separation in the micrometer scale. The tailored multilevel pore system in the polymer scaffolds can be preserved through carbonization and thermal activation, yielding the multimodal porous carbon and activated carbon (AC) monoliths. The thin columnar macroframeworks are beneficial for electrode materials due to the short mass diffusion length through small pores (micro- and mesopores). By employing the nanostructured AC monolith as a binder-free electrode for supercapacitors, we have also explored the capability of "water-in-salt" electrolytes, aiming at high-voltage aqueous supercapacitors. Despite that the carbon electrode surface is supposed to be covered with salt-derived decomposition products that hinder the water reduction, the effective surface area contributing to electric double-layer capacitance in 5 M bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) is found to be comparable to that in a conventional neutral aqueous electrolyte. The expanded stability potential window of the superconcentrated electrolyte allows for a 2.4 V-class aqueous AC/AC symmetric supercapacitor with good cycle performance.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Chemical Engineering(all)
- Materials Chemistry